Listen all tracks :
|01. Dime Pedro (2:21)||0.49|
|02. A cierto galán su dama (2:15)||0.49|
|03. El amor (3:39)||0.49|
|04. Entre dos álamos verdes (2:21)||0.49|
|05. Guastala (2:36)||0.49|
|06. Hijos d'Eva tributarios (2:34)||0.49|
|07. Minuetes (2:47)||0.49|
|08. Malograda fuentesilla (3:41)||0.49|
|09. Las penas (2:32)||0.49|
|10. Qué importa que yo lo calle (2:07)||0.49|
|11. Don Pedro a quien los crueles (3:08)||0.49|
|12. Canarios (2:21)||0.49|
|13. Marizápalos (4:56)||0.49|
|14. Rondó (2:24)||0.49|
|15. Paxarillo fugitivo (3:02)||0.49|
|16. Las sombras (4:17)||0.49|
|17. Yo sé que no ha de ganar (2:39)||0.49|
|18. Marionas (4:02)||0.49|
|19. Poco a poco pensiamento (3:30)||0.49|
|20. Porque tan firme os adoro (4:41)||0.49|
Total Time 1:07:46
Music and Poetry in Baroque Peru and Mexico The Codex Zuola (Peru) The "Códice Fray Gregorio de Zuola", which came from Cuzco (Peru), was one of the first documents about ancient Latin American music that musicologists became aware of. It was given to Ricardo Rojas, the Argentinian pioneer of research concerning literature, and arts in general, in the Americas of the seventeenth and eighteeenth centuries. Even though it was "discovered" as long ago as the 1930s, this manuscript remains enigmatic in a number of respects and this has deterred many musicians. Despite the difficulties in understanding it, the songs in this codex are illuminating, and not just because of their undoubted artistic value. They also cast light on an area of musical performance that is poorly documented. The Zuola codex is also of great interest in itself because it can be seen as an intermediary between the Hispanic tradition of tonos humanos and the traditional monody of the southern Andes area of Peru. One was transmitted in writing, the other orally. The manuscript contains 18 songs that appear to be from the same source. Taking as their starting point the vocal parts of Spanish polyphonic songs, they went into circulation across the Iberian peninsula and the American colonies, changing according to the taste of the various social groups that adopted them. It was after this stage of oral transmission that they then again appeared on paper - at the hand of Zuola. Even this would not have arrested the process of change: it may well have continued independently of the written text. But this does not prevent us from considering the songs to be part of a defined tradition, that of the tonos humanos, or secular polyphonic songs of the baroque period. This tradition spread across the whole Spanish empire. (Dime Pedro) Of the 16 secular songs in the manuscript, one presented in two versions that correspond, both as to text and music. Nine other songs correspond with works elsewhere (four with respect to their texts, and five with respect to text and music). These correspondences demonstrate clearly the peculiar dynamic of the tonos humanos which circulated in different guises and in different musical contexts - as secular songs, theatre music for comedies and dramas, religious villancicos, dances and diferencias (variations) for harp or guitar. The tonos were generally written as choral songs for three or four voices and, later in history, as solos or duets with basso continuo. In contradistinction to this practice, the notation of most of the melodies in the Zuola codex is monodic, with out a bass part, in the manner of popular song. We have sought to reconstruct the pieces presented here in the way in which they might have been heard and interpreted in their own epoch. The pieces are set to music in a simple, subtle and delightful manner that shines through the mysteries that we may find in them, limited as we may be in the way we look at things and because of our own tendency to rely on a written tradition. The texts of Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca and their contemporaries, filled with beauty and refinement, take on a radiant and living form through an eye that attempts to integrate a "wise" ancient music with the folk music of an oral tradition.
Guitar music in baroque America In addition to the pieces drawn from the Zuola codex, we have chosen some works for baroque guitar taken from various manuscripts discovered in Mexico. These manuscripts demonstrate a fertile and lively field of musical and instrumental development, completely apart from the great works of religious music belonging to the colonial past. When we examine the records of secular life in Latin America before the independence movement began right at the start of the nineteenth century, we find numerous references to the presence of guitars, treble guitars and vihuelas. The guitar appears in the context of dance, poetry and popular song and the night-time activities of creole, half-caste and black people. Occasionally it appears in the context of opera productions. The various types of plucked-string instruments "imported" by the conquistadors took on new characteristics with the passage of time. These can be traced to their use in folk music, in which the rich tradition of eighteenth-century Spanish music blended with the contributions of native people and black people. This fusion gave birth to instruments like the charango, the cuatro, and the bandola llanera of Venezuela, and the jarana of Mexico. (Entre dos álamos verde)
Codice Saldívar 4 This was found by chance in a second-hand book shop by the musicologist Gabriel Saldívar in the early1940s. This carefully prepared manuscript is attributed to the Spanish guitarist, Santiago de Murcia (1685-1732) who spent his last years in Mexico. It gives us a rich portrait of characteristic guitar pieces belonging to the Spanish context (Marizápalos, Jácaras, Canarios, Marionas, Minuetes and others) written with great refinement and a clear knowledge of the instrument. It combines the "rasgueado"(1) style, characteristic of the five-course guitar, with the plucked style. We have taken the following works from the manuscript: Las penas, a piece that is full of lyricism and wistfulness; Canarios, and a very popular dance that is full of joy; Las sombras, particularly chosen because of its similarity to a piece in the Zuola Codex (that is, No sé a qué sombras funestas) and with an air from the opera La púrpura de la rosa by Tomás de Torrejón y Velazco, first performed in Lima, Peru, in 1701.Two other pieces from this manuscript are presented here: El amor, a work that recalls an air from the opera La púrpura de la rosa, and Marionas, a dance that is very popular in style and resembles an Italian chaconne. El amor is preceded by a short prelude ( from Resumen de acompañar la parte con la guitarra, Madrid, 1714) by the same composer and widely known in Mexico. In Marionas we have added a second part written for a guitar tuned in A to the original text. (Canarios)
'Manuscrito 1560' (Biblioteca Nacional de México) This was probably written by a pupil of Murcia or by an unknown Mexican guitarist. It contains a large number of light pieces and dance pieces as well as minuets and transcriptions of Corelli’s violin sonatas. It is rather uneven in musical quality and generally does not bear comparison with the Codice Saldívar or the Resumen de acompañar la parte. However, there are some exceptions, in the case of some pieces that display a similarity to pieces in those two documents and some other pieces selected for this recording. We have selected Minuetes - two minuets, followed by a third minuet from the Resumen de acompañar la parte, practically identical to one in the Manuscrito 1560. Then there is the delightful Guastala, and finally an untitled piece that we have provisionally called Rondó. The last two works are presented first in their original form for solo guitar, then in a version for two equal guitars (that is, guitars in E with five courses). The part for the second guitar was specially written for this recording.
Notes on the reconstruction The works from the Zuola codex, apart from Dime Pedro and Porqu’ tan firme os adoro have been reconstructed in a number of areas. First, the rhythmic values had to be adjusted because they did not correspond to the accents in the text, and this was most complex in the case of Que importa yo lo calle. Then there was the restoration of the regular rhythmic structures that had been obscured by the notation used in the original text. Finally, we had to work out an instrumental accompaniment ina manner appropriate to the character of each piece. This was because, except in the case of the polyphonic pieces, the melodies are without any bass part or any guide as to an accompaniment. In creating these accompaniments, we took as our starting point the style that was predominant in the hispano-creole context in the large American cities of the seventeenth century, as expressed in the tonos humanos and the tonadas of the Spanish operas of this period (2) and in the romances of the Spanish vihuelists of the sixteenth century (notably Alonso Mudarra and Luys Milán). It was on this basis that we managed to work out the accompaniments for five-course guitar (3) and vihuela. These take the form of a basso continuo in certain cases. In other cases these take the form of an "alphabet for guitar" (a seventeenth-century system that can be compared to the accompaniment, in popular and folk music of Latin America, by chords or by American numbering) as well as the form of tablature for vihuela in a style approaching that of the Spanish renaissance tradition.
(1) Rasgueado is a manner of playing in which the strings are strummed rhythmically with the nails of the right hand, while the left hand is used to play chords on the neck of the guitar. (2) For example, La púrpura de la rosa by Tomás de Torrejón y Velazco, based on a libretto by Calderón de la Barca, first performed in Lima, Peru, in 1701, and El robo de Proserpina y la sentencia de Júpiter by Filippo Coppola, based on a libretto by Manuel García Bustamante, first performed in Naples in 1678. In both these cases it is worth noting the abundance of narrative airs based on the repetition of the same musical pattern against which the texts change as in a recitative. In fact, in the EL robo de Proserpina some of these airs contain up to nine couplets. The hypnotic effect of the constant repetition of the musical pattern actually facilitates the listener’s concentration on the meaning of the text. All the pieces from the Zuola codex employ the same form, in this way allowing us to appreciate the poetic richness of the texts. (3) This was the instrument of choice for accompaniment in seventeenth century Spain and in the secular context during the colonial period. Moreover, in the Zuola codex there is a page with an engraving of this "alphabet for guitar". This encourages us to think that the use of the "alphabet" in the reconstruction of the pieces is fully justified.