Listen all tracks :
|01. Cachua al Nacimiento de Nuestro Señor (2:36)||0.59|
|02. Lanchas para baylar (3:33)||0.59|
|03. Cachua a dúo al Nacimiento de Cristo Nuestro Señor (2:06)||0.59|
|04. Caravinhas saon (4:04)||0.59|
|05. Tonada El Huicho (3:46)||0.59|
|06. Bayle del Chimo (3:12)||0.59|
|07. Tonada del Chimo (6:47)||0.59|
|08. Tonada La Lata (3:47)||0.59|
|09. Tonada El Congo (2:09)||0.59|
|10. De la alta Providencia (A San Cayetano) (9:04)||0.59|
|11. Cachuita de la montaña (2:26)||0.59|
|12. A la fuente de vienes (5:18)||0.59|
|13. Jacaras (3:19)||0.59|
|14. Cachua Serranita (1:41)||0.59|
|15. Tonada El Diamante (3:07)||0.59|
|16. Zarabanda (5:06)||0.59|
Total Time 1:07:46
Trujillo (Perú) , On the eve of liberation
Between 1782 and 1785, Baltasar Martínez Compañón y Bajanda, Bishop of Trujillo, made a number of official visits within his diocese, resulting in a record of nine volumes of watercolours illustrating the natural landscape, daily life and architecture of his bishopric.
In this codex, known as the Trujillo del Perú, we also find 19 musical works that were collected in the streets of the villages he visited. There are many reasons for treating this collection of music as indispensable to any attempt at understanding the history of Latin American music. Being part of an oral tradition, these pieces would never have come down to us in their original form if it had not been for this collection.
The transcriptions were made during the last decades of colonial rule and, like the watercolours, reveal something of the multicultural and multiracial society of those times. Compañón himself was a learned priest brought up in the late baroque music school of Spain. This is why he transcribed the instrumental bass part in the form of a basso continuo. In our traditional folk music, the role of the guitar and its descendants is in fact to perform a sort of simplified basso continuo, but in a virtuosic rasgueado style. Our debt to Spain in this respect is as indisputable as the enrichment that each region of its colonies in turn conferred on it.
Another essential quality of the collection lies in the fact that Martínez Compañón took the precaution of organising it according to the locations from which it was drawn (Trujillo, Lambayeque, Chachapoyas, Caxamarca, Guamacucho) and of specifying the genres of the pieces (cachua, tonada, bayle). He also took care to add various comments that allow us to deduce how the pieces were performed and to which social group they belonged. As far as the texts are concerned, the pieces consist of love songs, songs of contest (Cachua al Nascimiento de Cristo Nuestro Señor ) songs of praise and even erotica. (Though he was every bit a bishop, scientific discipline gave Compañón the authority to transcribe even these!) There are also two instrumental dances, one of which, Lanchas para baylar, has, in rhythm and harmony, a character that one finds widespread today in the countries of northern South America. Some of the watercolours are concerned with choreography - and musical instruments: the guitar, bandurria, violin, harp, pífano and tamboril, all Spanish in character and most probably made in Peru. Among the illustrations we find also some of the indigenous zampoña and the marimba of the African slaves. The texts are in a creole dialect of Spanish, sprinkled in places with a few indigenous words. The Tonada del Chimo is the only original music written to a text in the mochica language, a language that had already disappeared by the time of Martínez Compañón.
The transcription was made at a moment of great historical interest. Indeed, at the beginning of the following century, the wars of independence would turn the social order of South America upside down and provoke unprecedented levels of migration and other changes. The liberation army of General San Martín brought Buenos Aires, Chile and Peru into cross-Andean union. The troops as they returned caused the first large-scale spread of musical material, setting the scene for the diffusion and development of our folk music at a level not seen again until the twentieth century. We can view the Trujillo Codex of Martínez Compañón as representative of the raw material that spread at the time across the South American continent. In the works of Juan de Herrera (ca. 1665-1738, Bogotá, Colombia) we can see clearly the sort of rhythmic richness that was drawn from Spain: there are binary and ternary rhythms, both consecutive and superimposed, as well as off-beat accents. This is readily observed in Caravinãs saon as well as in the works of Gaspar Sanz, but this, the strongest characteristic that we inherited from Spain, is in fact present in most of the pieces on this recording.
Yet the colonies demonstrated in many ways a high degree of emancipation. The American context tended to encourage the guitar to change and spread. Spanish guitar music appears to have had a remarkable success in Latin America in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Saldívar Codex, discovered in Mexico, includes various works of Santiago de Murcia written in guitar tablature. The Instrucciones de música sobre la guitarra española (A Musical Guide to the Spanish Guitar), by Gaspar Sanz (Zaragoza, 1697) was in circulation in Latin America, and there is a version of his Marizápalos in the Zuola Codex (Peru, end 17th century). The Luz y Norte musical (Light and the Musical North) by Ruiz de Ribayaz (who moreover visited the New World) also reproduces various works by Sanz.
Latin American culture has, since its beginnings, gradually found its own course, diverging from that of the Iberian peninsula. For this reason, an authentic approach to this sort of "colonial" repertoire requires knowledge not only of European baroque music but also of traditional Latin-American music. It has to combine scholarship and practice with mysticism and superstition.
Christopher AndersonMúsica Temprana
Started in 1996 by the Argentinian musician Adrián Rodríguez van der Spoel, the ensemble Música Temprana has focussed from the beginning on a repertoire based on early vocal music. A change of course came about when its founder met Gabriel Aguilera. They turned to the performance of seventeenth and eighteenth century Latin American music, highlighting the cultural ties that brought Spain and Portugal into proximity with the New World, with the extraordinary "comings and goings" that started in 1492. Guitar and percussion represent the instrumental backbone of the group. The guitar, the Latin American instrument par excellence, is mainly used by Música Temprana with the rasgueado technique (referred to in Spain as early as 1555, and appearing today in countless regional variants).
The members of Música Temprana live in the Netherlands, but come from Latin America, Portugal and the United States. They are familiar with the performance practices taught by modern scholarship as well as those that stem from the oral traditions of their countries of origin. This fusion of knowledge is indispensable to the performance of music from the colonial period, music that, right from the beginning, differentiated itself from European music through the influences of native and African peoples.