El fuego  

Fernando Sor
Pedro Ximenes Abril Tirado
Juan Pedro Esnaola
Nicanor Albarellos
Fernando Cruz Cordero

La guitarra romántica y revolucionaria
Gabriel Schebor, guitar

VOL BL 705

Price for one CD : 8.90 €

Listen all tracks :

Track, Title Listen Caddy
Fernando Sor
6 bagatelles op.43
01. Andantino (3:03) 0.49
02. Allegretto (2:23) 0.49
03. Cantabile (5:03) 0.49
04. Mazurca (2:51) 0.49
05. Andante (5:07) 0.49
06. Valse (2:52) 0.49
Pedro Ximenes Abril Tirado
07. Minuet 74 (7:22) 0.49
08. Minuet 75 (3:59) 0.49
09. Minuet 41 (1:44) 0.49
10. Minuet 46 (3:36) 0.49
11. Minuet 57 (6:34) 0.49
12. Minuet 52 (4:00) 0.49
13. Vals n°16 (2:29) 0.49
14. Sonata (11:05) 0.49
Juan Pedro Esnaola
15. Vals 1 (1:29) 0.49
16. Vals 2 (1:43) 0.49
Nicanor Albarellos
17. Valsa (1:12) 0.49
18. Varsoviana (5:55) 0.49
19. Polka (5:45) 0.49
20. Redova (7:22) 0.49
21. Cachucha (3:59) 0.49
Fernando Cruz Cordero
6 Divertissements
22. Le depart (a J. M. Ciebra) (3:45) 0.49
23. Menuet (1:49) 0.49
24. Vals (0:44) 0.49
25. Le lunatique (1:47) 0.49
26. Vals (1:03) 0.49
27. La reminisence (2:42) 0.49

Total Time 1:09:36

The Guitar Among the Voices of Latin American Independence

Since its origins, back in the 15th century, this instrument has led a double life: it has been appreciated both in popular settings and among the cultivated elites. Its double life has given rise to scholarly chamber music and to the guitar’s permanent presence both as the entertainer of popular festivities and in songs portraying everyday life. After the baroque period, which was outstandingly fertile in terms of religious music in the region, the guitar was confined almost exclusively to the realms of the popular or the mixed music styles—as in the case of the aforementioned zarzuela and tonadilla—until the transformation of the 6-course (or double string) guitar into the 6 single-string guitar made execution easier, which resulted in a new, different kind of repertoire more inclined towards virtuosity and to the classical-romantic taste. This transformation can also be perceived in the change of settings where the guitar was generally played, leaving behind the zarzuela theaters—almost totally outmoded by the Italian opera’s unstoppable momentum—to confine itself to the romantic salons.

The advance of the ideas of the Enlightenment deepened the division between the "learned" sector of society (who took part in the salons and in bourgeois life) and the middle-class and popular sectors. Again, the guitar became a witness and an entertainer around social changes, developing amidst the new intellectual and cultural life of the salons, and earning an almost undisputed prominence in the lives of country dwellers—gauchos, payadores—who accompany their coplas singing with a guitar. Both worlds (the learned and that from the country) shall meet again, joined by the guitar, with the appearance of the musical nationalism at the beginning of the 20th century.

With the development of urban culture in South American capitals, music schools focusing on instrument performance were founded, coexisting with the practice of stage and religious music. Due to these institutes' work, concerts began to be given regularly, spreading the works of native composers and contemporary European models of that period. The arrival in Buenos Aires of guitarist Esteban Massini acquainted the local and Montevidean audiences with the Italian news about the instrument. It is known that Massini and other musicians played works by Ferdinando Carulli in their concerts in 1822 and 1823. The Italian guitarists exerted their influence in most Latin American prominent cities, a proof of which is the Sonata in this CD, by an anonymous composer. This work is kept in a private archive in the city of Sucre, Bolivia.

The renowned Peruvian musician Pedro Abril Ximenes Tirado, who ended his days as the chapel master of the Cathedral of Sucre, is undoubtedly the most outstanding musical figure of his time in Latin America. He composed 100 minuets—some of them published in Paris and others, in Rome—a series of excellent valses and pastorelas, songs with guitar accompaniment, duets for cello and guitar, and even a divertimento for guitar, 2 flutes, 2 violins, viola, and cello, rendering a highly valuable contribution to 19th century’s guitar literature, akin in quality to the works of the best composers for this instrument. Aside from his works for guitar, Tirado wrote concertos for violin and orchestra, 43 masses and many motets.

A legacy from the 18th century, the salon was the prevailing institution for the devel opment of chamber music in the Río de la Plata and South America during the wars of independence. In this period, young bourgeois freethinkers mingled with monarchic conservatives. The salons in the Rio de la Plata were nourished by revolutionary subjects for discussion involving heated arguments between rationalists, encyclopedists, and saintsimonians. Simultaneously, the idea of embedding national content into music began to be considered. The meetings hosted, among others, the romantic writer Esteban Echeverría (who, during his stay in Paris, studied guitar with Fernando Sor) and Nicanor Albarellos, both of whom had proven musical activity and were frequent entertainers at the tertulias, accompanied with their guitars. Sor’s 6 bagatelles op.43 included in this CD are a testimony of this deep relationship. They also pay homage to the times when General José de San Martín, who freed Argentina, Chile and Peru, took guitar lessons with the Catalonian master.

In those times of major political controversies, the Argentine émigrés fleeing from Juan Manuel de Rosas’ regime—who frowned upon this kind of debates—massively arrived in Montevideo and spread Sor’s and Albarellos’s works. In the Montevidean meetings, the guitar alternated between typical dances (such as counterdances, mazurkas, polkas, varsovians, minuets, cachuchas) by native composers (such as those from Gerolamo Folle’s collection, included in this CD) and musical pieces from Europe. But the guitar did not only thrive in anti-Rosist environments: at that same historical moment, Juan Pedro Esnaola—known as the first professional composer in Argentina—dedicated an anthem and a song to Juan Manuel de Rosas, both accompanied by guitar—an instrument that Rosas could play—and also 2 original valses for this instrument. Back in Buenos Aires, with a changed political climate due to Rosas' defeat, Albarellos re-opened his house in the neighborhood of Olivos for the benefit of the activities of an artistic salon where many musicians performed, including the Uruguayan guitarist living in Argentina Fernando Cruz Cordero. A professional lawyer, he developed a beautiful art for the guitar, full a of romanticism manifested in his 6 Divertissements, which bring this CD to a close.

Translation: Daniela Bentancur

Note regarding the guitar used in this C.D.

The guitar used in this recording is a period instrument, probably built in the 1820’s in the Rouen region, in France by the Bonnel luthiers, I have used gut strings—as was customary at the time the guitar was built and its repertoire composed—and low tension wound bass strings.